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the Infer Family

INFER is one of the three families of questions in the Reasoning section.

Unlike the other Reasoning families, the argument on INFER questions isn't actually an argument. INFER questions only give you facts.

On INFER questions, it's your job to combine the facts and choose the answer that is an allowable conclusion.

inferences vs. assumptions

In the ARGUE family, correct answers are assumption. An assumption is a fact that's missing from the argument.

In the INFER family, correct answers are inferences. An inference is a missing conclusion that follows from the facts.

The major difference, therefore, between ARGUE and INFER questions is that on ARGUE questions, the correct answer adds to the given argument. Whereas on INFER questions, the correct answer follows from the given facts.

MECHANICAL INFER questions often feature conditional logic and benefit from drawing a diagram.

On ORGANIC INFER questions, your flexible prediction will often be: to know what you know and what you don't know.

ORGANIC INFER questions also favor modest answers, like MEDIUM questions in the Reading section. Modest answers are easier to prove.

There are 3 special question types within the INFER Family:

Question Type Basic Job Style
(DIS)AGREE find the overlap between the two speakers ORGANIC
MUST BE FALSE find an absolute fact that can be contradicted MECHANICAL
RULE diagram the rule(s), then find an answer that follows them. MECHANICAL


Which of the following is most supported by the information above?

Which of the following logically completes the argument?

Which of the following can be inferred from the statements given above?

Job Description: Find the answer that roughly combines the facts.


Fact 1: Bananas 🍌 are high in potassium.

Fact 2: Leg cramps are often caused by a lack of potassium.

Fact 3: Bananas are gross.

Allowable combination: Eating bananas may help prevent leg cramps.

Note: "potassium", the connecting link, didn't appear in the correct answer.


Which of the following must be true based on the above?

Which of the following logically completes the argument?

How to tell the difference between ORGANIC and MECHANICAL INFER questions

A question that asks about what "must be true" is likely MECHANICAL.

But a question that asks what "logically completes" the argument could be either. You may have to read the argument to know what style of question you're dealing with. If the given facts are conditional or absolute, or you can chain together the ideas in multiple phrases, it's probably MECHANICAL.

Job Description: Diagram the facts to make an air-tight combination.


  • Use contrapositives to make connections.
  • If there are conditionals, ignore the non-conditional information.

Fact 1: If you mess around, then you'll find out.

Diagram 1: Mess around --> Find out

Fact 2: If you don't try, then you won't find out.

Diagram 2: no Try --> no Find out

Fact 3: Trying is for losers.

Diagram 3: ???

1 + contrapositive of 2: Mess around --> Find out + Find out --> Tried

Combination: Mess around --> Tried


Which of the following would the two people above be most likely to agree about?

Which of the following would the two people above be most likely to disagree about?

Job Description: Find the overlap between the two speakers. That overlap may be a slight inference.


  • The second speaker often says what they (dis)agree with.
  • The correct answer doesn't have to be the main point, just something they both address.
  • Just because there's two speakers doesn't mean it's this question type.

Person A: I love cats. They're fluffy and don't bother you too much.

Person B: I love dogs. They're more fluffy than cats and cuddle more too.

Potential agreement: Fluffiness is a good thing.

Potential disagreement: Cuddling is a good thing.

Not enough evidence to support: Dogs are better than cats.


Which of the following must be false based on the above?

Job Description: Find an absolute fact that can be contradicted. Pick the answer that contracts it.

Tricks: Ignore the interesting bits. Focus only on the absolutes.


As every experienced gardner knows, daily watering can actually harm your houseplants.

Absolute word: every

Non-absolute word: can

Prediction: X is an an experienced gardener and X does not know...


Which of the following examples conforms to the principles stated above?

Which of the following violates the principle stated above?

Job Description: Diagram the rules. Test the answers. Select the answer that follows the rules.


  • Eliminate unprovable answers. An answer is only provable if it concludes the right side of the rule (including the contrapositive).
  • On "violates the rule" questions, pick the answer that breaks the rules.

Rule: All advertisers are liars.

Diagram: Advertiser → Liar

Contrapositive: not Liar → not Advertiser

Unprovable answers (can't be correct):

  1. X is not a liar because...
  2. X is an advertiser since...

Provable answers (could be correct):

  1. Y is a liar since...
  2. Y is not an advertiser because...

Breaks the rule:

  • Z is an advertiser but not a liar.